A Sustainable and Equitable Blue Recovery to the COVID-19 Crisis

A healthy ocean is the foundation for vibrant economies. Before the COVID-19 pandemic, ocean-based industries were estimated to contribute 2.5 percent of world gross value added and over 31 million direct full-time jobs. However, as governments seek to reset and rebuild following the pandemic, the ocean economy has been overlooked in stimulus measures, especially when one considers the pandemic’s devastating impacts on workers and […]

Organised Crime in the Fisheries Sector

Criminal activity in the fisheries sector, which has concerned the international community for years, has become increasingly organised. Frequently transnational, such crime can manifest in a broad range of offences, the most common being economic crimes such as money laundering, fraud, forgery, tax and customs evasion, corruption and human trafficking. Anecdotal, scientific and case-based evidence […]

A Sustainable Ocean Economy for 2050: Approximating Its Benefits and Costs

The ocean faces urgent environmental challenges and taking action to protect ocean-based ecosystems and ensure the environmental sustainability of ocean-based activities will help deliver a host of benefits to society. Building on the Special Report ‘The Ocean as a Solution to Climate Change: Five Opportunities for Action’, this new Ocean Panel–commissioned research finds that investing $1 in key […]

Critical Habitats and Biodiversity: Inventory, Thresholds and Governance

This paper examines the distribution of species and critical marine habitats across the world’s oceans; analyses trends in drivers, pressures, impacts and response; and establishes thresholds for protecting biodiversity hotspots, as well as indicators to monitor change. From this scientific base, it assesses the current legal framework and available tools for biodiversity protection, current gaps […]

Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated Fishing and Associated Drivers

By looking at the breadth of areas in need of reform, this Blue Paper lays out a methodology for addressing IUU fishing, including best practices for implementing the Port State Measures Agreement and other means to prevent IUU fishing catches from entering the market. It also discusses ways to promote technologies for combating IUU fishing, […]

The Expected Impacts of Climate Change on the Ocean Economy

The paper examines existing and expected climate-driven changes, highlights opportunities for effective institutions and markets to reduce these impacts, explores opportunities for investments by highlighting the magnitude and direction of climate change impacts, and provides recommendations for how countries can achieve blue economic growth by implementing policies and infrastructure that reduce risks and build resilience […]

The Future of Food from the Sea

This paper considers the status and future trends of food production through fisheries and aquaculture at regional and global scales, the opportunities of ocean-based food in achieving SDG 2 (Zero Hunger), and recommendations for how current barriers might be overcome to transition to more sustainable and abundant food production from the ocean. ‘The Future of […]

The Ocean as a Solution to Climate Change: Five Opportunities for Action

Climate change poses stark risks to the health of the ocean and to the realisation of a prosperous and sustainable ocean economy. Acidification and rising ocean temperatures are negatively impacting important industries such as fishing and tourism, as well as the well-being of coastal populations. There is an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and […]

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